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Saturday
Nov192016

west rutland marsh - november monitoring report

Birders almost equaled bird species for RCAS’s monthly monitoring walk around West Rutland Marsh this morning. With clear skies and the forecast promising temperatures in the 60s, no one minded much.

Nineteen observers counted 21 species. Although this seems low it still beats last year’s 19 which is also our 16-year average. Past November walks have yielded anywhere from 11 to 27 species.

There were no real surprises. Raptors consisted of five red-tailed hawks and one Cooper’s hawk.

A belted kingfisher was seen from the boardwalk as it flew from Water Street to the power lines. A northern flicker was heard and a red-bellied woodpecker was seen.

Eastern bluebirds were heard singing, but not seen.  Sparrows were represented by three American tree sparrows and a lone junco.

The next walk is scheduled for Thursday, December 8.

Today’s list:

Mallard  4
Cooper's Hawk  1
Red-tailed Hawk  5
Rock Pigeon (Feral Pigeon)  6
Mourning Dove  4
Belted Kingfisher  1
Red-bellied Woodpecker  1
Downy Woodpecker  4
Northern Flicker  1
Blue Jay  23
American Crow  9
Common Raven  2
Black-capped Chickadee  43
Tufted Titmouse  1
White-breasted Nuthatch  1
Eastern Bluebird  2
European Starling  20
American Tree Sparrow  3
Dark-eyed Junco (Slate-colored)  1
Northern Cardinal  4
American Goldfinch  20

Thursday
Oct272016

seed sale and membership drive - november 5

White-breasted NuthatchIt’s time to stock up on birdseed! Join RCAS on Saturday, November 5, for birding banter and an opportunity to purchase birdseed at a great price and without sales tax. And if you haven't joined RCAS, we'd love have you be a part of us.

We have two locations: Garland’s Farm and Garden on Park Street in Rutland (8 a.m. to 1 p.m.) and Blue Seal Feeds on Route 7 in Brandon (9 a.m. to 2 p.m.). Cash or checks only please!

And since it’s that time of year, it’s worth re-printing our recommendations for keeping a healthy bird feeding area:

Salmonellosis, trichomoniasis, avian pox, aspergillosis, and conjunctivitis are diseases that commonly affect birds that visit backyard bird feeders. Sick birds are less alert and less active. They feed less and often cower on a feeder, reluctant to fly. Their feathers look ill-kept. Sick birds are more vulnerable to starvation, predation, dehydration, and severe weather. Eventually, these diseases are fatal.

Dark-eyed JuncoDisease is one of the many natural processes affecting wild species. You can minimize the risks and spread of avian diseases at your bird feeders by taking the following precautions:

1.       GIVE THEM SPACE. Avoid crowding by providing ample feeder space. Lots of birds using a single feeder looks wonderful, but crowding is a key factor in spreading disease. Crowding also creates stress that may make birds more vulnerable to disease. Several feeders at wide intervals help disperse the visitors.

2.       CLEAN UP WASTES. Keep the feeder area clean of waste food and droppings. A Broom and shovel can accomplish a lot of good, but a vacuum such as you might use in your garage or workshop will help even more.

3.       MAKE FEEDERS SAFE. Provide safe feeders without sharp points or edges. Even small scratches and cuts will allow bacteria and viruses to enter otherwise healthy birds.

4.       KEEP FEEDERS CLEAN. Use feeders that are made of a material that can be sterilized (e.g., polycarbonate). Clean and disinfect feeders by fully immersing them in a 10% bleach solution (one part household bleach: 9 parts water) for 2-3 minutes. Allow to air dry. Once or twice a month should do, weekly could help more if you notice sick birds at your feeders.

5.       USE GOOD FOOD. Discard any food that smells musty, is wet, looks moldy or has fungus growing on it. Disinfect any storage container that holds spoiled food and the scoop used to fill feeders from it.

6.       PREVENT CONTAMINATION. Keep rodents out of stored food. Mice can carry and spread some bird diseases without being affected themselves.

7.       ACT EARLY. Don’t wait to act until you see sick or dead birds. With good prevention you’ll seldom find sick or dead birds at your feeders.

8.       SPREAD THE WORD. Encourage your neighbors who feed birds to follow the same precautions. Birds normally move among feeders and can spread diseases as they go. The safest birdfeeders will be those in communities where neighbors cooperate with equal concern for the birds.

9.       BEARS. Also, be sure to delay setting up feeders until the possibility of bears has passed for the year. And if you do have a beer in your neighborhood, take your feeders down immediately (as well as removing any outdoor pet food, garbage and anything that smells intriguing to a bear). And let your neighbors know so they can do the same.

Sunday
Oct162016

west rutland marsh - october monitoring report

The fall foliage is still brilliant on the hillsides, but the crystal coating on the cattails and other marsh vegetation this morning was a reminder of what is to come. Eighteen participants, sporting wool caps and warm gloves for the first time this season, joined together for our monthly monitoring of West Rutland Marsh.

Today’s tally was 37, three more than one year ago, and five more than our average for October (the high was 39 in October 2007).

Many species have departed or are at least packing their bags. In sharp contrast with September, only one gray catbird was recorded. No common yellowthroats or marsh wrens were observed, but a swamp sparrow sang weakly in the cattails.

Several ruby-crowned kinglets were flitting in the trees and goldenrod seedheads along with a few golden-crowned kinglets. Their contrasting call notes were quite obvious.

White-throated sparrows and dark-eyed juncos were seen in several spots along the route as well as song sparrows. Our first vesper sparrow for this walk was seen briefly along Marble Street. This is the third month in a row we have added a new species to our monitoring list.

Three purple finches, the two males looking particularly bright in the morning sun, sat in a bare tree. One was heard singing.

Three red-tailed hawks were noted, but no turkey vultures.

Our next walk: November 19 (Saturday) at 8 a.m.

Today’s list:

Canada Goose  2
Wood Duck  2
Mallard  2
Red-tailed Hawk  3
Rock Pigeon (Feral Pigeon)  6
Mourning Dove  6
Belted Kingfisher  2
Downy Woodpecker  6
Hairy Woodpecker  1
Northern Flicker (Yellow-shafted)  1
Pileated Woodpecker  1
Peregrine Falcon  1
Eastern Phoebe  1
Blue Jay  19
American Crow  45
Common Raven  4
Black-capped Chickadee  25
Tufted Titmouse  2
White-breasted Nuthatch  3
Brown Creeper  1
Carolina Wren  1
Golden-crowned Kinglet  4
Ruby-crowned Kinglet  5
American Robin  65
Gray Catbird  1
European Starling  3
Chipping Sparrow  1
Dark-eyed Junco (Slate-colored)  17
White-crowned Sparrow  2
White-throated Sparrow  10
Vesper Sparrow  1
Song Sparrow  9
Swamp Sparrow  2
Northern Cardinal  5
Red-winged Blackbird  49
Purple Finch  4
American Goldfinch  17

Tuesday
Oct042016

bobolink project results

Rutland County Audubon and many of our members have helped support the Bobolink Project for the past three years. Here is an encouraging report from Margaret Fowle at Audubon Vermont about this year’s results:                 

As many of you know, Audubon Vermont joined Mass Audubon and Audubon Connecticut to help continue the Bobolink Project in 2016. This project provides a financial incentive for farmers who delay haying during the Bobolink nesting season (mid-May through mid-July). To date, approximately $114,500 has been raised since 2013 in Vermont, enough to support bird-friendly management on 1,600 acres of hayfields in the State.

In 2016, the total acreage enrolled in Vermont was 407 acres. In addition, 22 acres were enrolled in Massachusetts and 98 acres were enrolled in New York, for a total of 527 acres. Allan Strong from UVM and Audubon Vermont staff surveyed the Vermont Bobolink Project fields in 2016 and estimated that 175 nesting pairs produced nearly 500 young. To do this work, we walked transects back and forth across each field to count the numbers of females and males, and then extrapolated the number of young produced using metrics from Allan's work. Often the landowners joined us on our survey and it was great for them to see the number of birds in their fields. In addition to the Bobolinks, we observed Savannah Sparrows, Eastern Meadowlarks, Northern Harriers and many other species.

Thanks to all of you who supported this important project - we look forward to continuing the work in 2017. Currently any donations to the project are going towards the 2017 field season. For more information, click here.

Wednesday
Sep282016

book review: the genius of birds

In her engrossing book, The Genius of Birds, Jennifer Ackerman, elucidates recent findings that are shifting our understanding of bird intelligence. Indeed, birds have borne the brunt of our disrespect, from the ‘bird-brained’ stupid, foolish person, to the ‘lame duck’ ineffectual politician. The concept of ‘bird-brain’ arose from the belief that avian species possessed only diminutive brains since they functioned mainly by instinct. But, not only have scientists found that some birds have brains relatively large for their size, size matters less than where neurons are located, how they communicate at their synapses and how interaction with the environment drives neural activity.

Avoiding the word ‘intelligence’ because of its anthropomorphizing human connotations, animal scientists now prefer the term ‘cognition,’ defined as any mechanism by which the animal acquires, processes, stores and uses information. It usually refers to mechanisms involved in learning, memory, perception and decision making. Higher forms of cognition constitute insight, reasoning and planning; however, forms are attention and motivation.

Cognitively defining intelligence, however, opens up another problem – how to measure it. There is no standard IQ test for birds, so scientists devise puzzles for birds, in order to reveal their problem-solving abilities. Such meticulously designed laboratory experiments have been very useful in disclosing bird skills, such as that of ‘007,’ a New Caledonian crow, that was able to shape one tool and use it to obtain another too, which was ultimately employed to extract a food reward (‘mega-tool use’).

But Ackerman cautions that judging bird intelligence by speed and success at solving lab problems, may overlook many variables, such as the boldness or fear of an individual. Birds that are faster at solving tasks may not be smarter, just less hesitant to engage in a new task.

 

Thus, to avoid the artificial framework of the lab experiment, another approach would be observation, of birds doing routine as well as unusual or new behavior in their own habitat. Though lacking the rigors of an experiment’s strict parameters, anecdotes, from both professionals and amateurs, have resulted in an enormous amount of useful enlightening data. These have been validated as repeated observations have confirmed them. For example: Green-backed herons have been found to use insects as bait, placing them lightly on the surface of water to lure fish.

 

So in amassing all the research to date, wherein does our understanding of bird intelligence lie? What birds are the smartest and why? Scientists have concluded that it is the ‘primary innovators,’ mainly crows and parrots; then grackles, raptors, woodpeckers, hornbills, gulls, kingfishers, roadrunners and herons. Innovation is accepted as a measure of cognition. Another example is owls scattering clumps of animal feces near the opening of their nest chambers and watching for unsuspecting dung beetles to scuttle toward their trap. Or consider the woodpecker finches of the Galapagos when they use their skills to chip away at bark, producing wood splinters to probe crevices beyond the reach of their beaks.

Delving deeper, Ackerman questions whether they are evolutionary forces driving bird innovation. Two theories postulate the source of such forces. First, there are the ecological problems birds encounter, especially foraging (how to find enough food, how to fetch hard to get foods, remembering where seeds are hidden). Secondly, there are social pressures – getting along with others, thieves, finding a mate and carrying for young. From this has arisen the ‘social intelligence hypothesis,’ the idea that that a demanding social life might drive the evolution of brain power.

Having covered the larger, overarching theories, Ackerman then investigates lesser, more discrete topics and issues.

Brains of many birds are actually considerably larger than expected for their body size. Reproductive strategy may play a role. Species that are precocial (born with eyes open and able to leave the nest in a day or two) have larger brains at birth than altricial birds (born naked, blind and helpless and remain in the nest until they are as big as their parents). On the other hand, birds that migrate have smaller brains than their sedentary relatives. Since brains consume a lot of energy, this would seem reasonable.

Calls, songs, mimicry and the virtuosity they entail, are address in a lengthy chapter. These vocal feats are brought about by the ‘syrinx,’ somewhat analogous to our vocal cords, but more complex in its anatomy and innervation, enabling the simultaneous production of two harmonically unrelated notes at the same time. Nonetheless, such structurally well-equipped birds must still learn by trial and error, working through wrong, off-key notes, to produce their vocalizations.

Nest building requires many intellectual abilities besides instinct: learning, memory, experience, decision making, coordination and collaborations.

And of course, there is the everlasting mystery of migration. Some new theories have arisen. ‘Infrasounds’ are produced by many natural sources, but mainly oceans. Interacting waves in the deep ocean and movements of sea surface water create a background noise in the atmosphere that can be detected with low frequency microphones. Birds may be capable of detecting such low frequencies and use them as a guide through the ‘soundscapes.’ Or the ‘olfactory navigation hypothesis’: pigeons with several olfactory nerves never returned home! Homing pigeons have very large olfactory bulbs compared with non-homing domestic pigeons.

Much more awaits the reader of this engaging, in-depth book. Ackerman has done extensive research, attested by 50 pages of explanatory notes at the end. Yet, at 271 pages, she has consolidated the heavy science to a layperson’s comprehension. My one criticism would be the need for explanatory diagrams. Lovely pen and ink drawings introduce each chapter, but, for example, her description of the complex steps of the New Caledonian crow in constructing a hook tool from the leaves of the pandanus tree left me befuddled.

The book is available at the Rutland Free Library.